Corey Seymour, Out of 9.5% of E1b1b in Sardinia, some 6% belongs to the North African M81 subclade, almost certainly dating from the time when Sardinia was a Phoenician/Carthaginian colony with intensive links with North Africa. It is the ancient Greeks who had the biggest impact on the genetic make-up of southern Italy. There is considerable comment published on the movement of the "Sea Peoples" and some disagreement on whether the "Greeks" (Hellenes) should be considered part of them. There are few surviving paternal lineages of Cro-Magnons in modern Italy. This more recent series of Slavic and Asian migrations into the area in modern times adds excitement and drama to our investigation. Deucalion "ruled over the country of Phthia, Thessaly, and took to wife Pyrrha, the 'red-blonde,' daughter of Epimetheus and Pandora. Originally Vikings from Denmark, the Normans were granted a duchy by the King of France in 911. (2009), Uniparental Markers of Contemporary Italian Population Reveals Details on Its Pre-Roman Heritage, Brisighelli et al. Spencer Wells Page Amazon Even the god Apollo is described as blond! Last updated on December 2017), A PDF version of this page is available on Academia.edu. The analysis of Sardinian lineages hint that the ancient Latins/Romans did not carry a lot of E1b1b lineages, if any. According to the founding myth of Rome, Romulus and Remus descended from the Latin kings of Alba Longa, themselves descended from Trojan prince Aeneas, who fled to the Latium after the destruction of Troy by the Greeks. [Fingerprints of the Gods, by Graham Hancock (London: Arrow, 1998), p 210.]. It was common practice at the time for Eastern European tribes to converge and retain the name of the dominant tribe. National Geographic It may be a coincidence, but these regions happen to be exactly the ones where haplogroups J2 and E1b1b reach frequencies comparable to Greece and western Anatolia. The Macedonians, an already-mixed northern group of Hellenic speakers who first united all the Hellenes in the Macedonian Empire, were dominantly blond. Based on the haplogroups found in modern Lebanon and in their former colonies, the Phoenicians seem to have carried a mixture of haplogroup J2, J1, E1b1b, G, R1b-M269/L23, T, L, R1b-V88, R2 and Q, roughly in that order of frequency. (2013) there were 16% of I1, 10.5% of R1b-U106 and 3.5% of I2a2a. In all these regions the Byzantines brought more Greco-Anatolian lineages (especially E1b1b and J2), which were already the dominant lineages from the Magna Graecia period. The kingdom was taken over by the Ostrogoths, who ruled the whole of Italy except Sardinia until 553. Italy was one of the temperate refugia for Cro-Magnons. We find many comments in early literature about the "Nordic" characteristics of Hellenic peoples. 6ix9ine Kooda Mp3, My Life In Dog Years, Much of the identity in North Africa we consider Arab is actually Berber, which includes much European admixture, including heavy German contributions in the post-Roman era. The same study reported 5.5% of R1a, 2.5% of I1, and 2.5% of R1b-U106 in Benevento. Properties Of Nyquist Rate, Genetic History of the Italians Italian and Caucasian That area was heavily Greek in that era and the pre-Etruscan era. But this tends to be a characteristic of all the Mediterranean peoples. They could have come from other parts of Europe later on, notably with the Celts, who also brought I2a2b (L38). Z56 appears to be the most Italic or Roman subclade, and particularly its Z72 clade. (2013), the Vandals appeared to have carried 35% of R1a, 29% of I2a2a, 24% of R1b, 6% of I2a1b and a mere 6% of I1. What we observe is the reverse; the frequency of U152 has been amplified around Roman colonies. The peninsula was unified by Piedmont two decades later, but Metternich's remark still largely holds true today. I found it interesting that this correspondent referred to recent genetic discoveries, because this is one area I try to keep up with. History and Art in Cyprus Italic-speakers, an Indo-European branch, are thought to have crossed the Alps and invaded the Italian peninsula around 3,200 years ago, establishing the Villanova culture and bringing with them primarily R1b-U152 lineages and replacing or displacing a large part of the indigenous people. italian genetic traits Mastodons migrated vast distances in response to climate change 40,000 years ago) to the Bronze Age (approx. During the earlier period of the Etruscan Empire, Rome was a major city, developed as a cultural centre by the Etruscan rulers before Romans thought about independence. They quickly acquired counties and duchies of their own and set about to unify all southern Italy under their rule. By the period of about 10,000 years BCE, there are already multiple sources from different directions. Scientists compared the group's genomic characteristics to the genetic markers of 35 populations from Europe and from the Mediterranean, as well as the genetic variants found among some 600 human remains dating to the Upper Palaeolithic and the Bronze Age -- 40,000 and 4,000 years ago, respectively.Researchers also compared the genomes of people from northern and southern Italy and traced the emergence of these difference back through the region's genetic timeline. (2007), Slow and fast evolving markers typing in Modena males (North Italy), Ferri et al. Adventure in Etruscan Myth and History The Vandals were the first to reach the Italian peninsula. There is a wide range of shades, physical types, and characteristics among the "Arab" peoples. Permission granted for free download and transmission for personal or educational use. But if the Roman colonists had not been predominantly U152, its frequency would have been diluted by the newcomers. Paul Krause Philosophy, In Italy they had colonies in western Sicily and southern and western Sardinia. The Genographic Project Blond characteristics found among Slavic populations may be accounted for partly by the previous Germanic strains and other populations the expanding Slavic tribes absorbed. The other genetic stream comes from northern Asia, through northern Europe and down western Europe into the northern Italian Peninsula. The most common variey of haplogroup I in Italy is I2a1a (M26), which is found mostly in Sardinia (36% of the male lineages) and to a lower extent in Iberia and coastal areas of the Western Mediterranean. Nowadays R1b-L23 is the second most common subclade of R1b in Italy (see map), although well behind R1b-U152. He mentions the current conflict between the Greek and Slavic identities in the current nation of Macedonia, formerly part of Yugoslavia. (2008), Male haplotypes and haplogroups differences between urban (Rimini) They seem to have traded with the inhabitants of southern Italy. The geographic isolation of Sardinia has left its inhabitants to a large degree unaffected by outside influences, apart from a minority of Phoenician, Roman and Vandal colonisers. Required fields are marked *. Three thirds of this time corresponds to the Ice Age, a period when humans lived as nomadic hunter-gatherers in small tribes. I would hesitate to attribute any one trend to one "Arab" geneset 10,000 years ago, especially since we have no way of determining the genetic characteristics associated with that stream of humanity at that time. Based on modern frequencies in northern and central Italy, each would have been 5 to 10x less common than R1b-U152. (2013), Low-Pass DNA Sequencing of 1200 Sardinians Reconstructs European Y-Chromosome Phylogeny, Francalacci et al. Today the Celtic peoples by culture and language include red-haired and dark-haired lines, with some blond as well. Pockets of haplogroup I2* and I2c (L596) have been observed at very low frequency in Northwest Italy, between the Alps and Tuscany. (2008), Y-Chromosome Based Evidence for Pre-Neolithic Origin of the Genetically Homogeneous but Diverse Sardinian Population: Inference for Association Scans, Contu et al. Total samples for Italy = 6145. Even the Asian Huns and Mongols incorporated significant Celtic genes. Agriculture had appeared in the Levant at least 11,500 years ago. The majority of modern Italian E1b1b and J2 came later though, with the Etruscans, the Greeks, and the various Near Eastern people who settled in Italy during the Roman Empire, particularly the Jews and the Syrians. They were succeeded by the Lombards (568-774), who had to contend for the political control of Italy with the Byzantines. Troy may well have been founded by the early M269 and/or L23 branches of R1b, representing the first expansion of R1b from the Pontic Steppe to the Balkans (see R1b history). the organization of Neanderthal living areas, Colour, Race and Genetics in the Horn of Africa, Ethnicity and Nationality in Mixed Genetics, How We Define Ethnicity (Menu of Articles), The Sabeans and Other Ancient Genetics and Tongues: Distinguishing Fact from Legend and Modern from Ancient, Etruscans, A Multi-Ethnic People Discussion list with photos, Prehistoric humanoid DNA - raises more questions than it answers. L23 has a remarkably uniform distribution over all the Italian peninsula, making between 5% and 10% of the male lineages. It seems they were looked down upon by the Greeks in what we think of as Greece now, the Roman province of Achaia. Some populations retain their more differentiated (specialized or uniform) character while others have been mixed (recombined) in layer after layer. Normans Naturally U152 was already present in northern Italy before the Roman period. In 1061 they invaded Sicily, which was completely conquered in 1091. On the other hand, not all U152 in southern Italy may be of Italic or direct Roman origin. On both the Greek and the Turkish TV stations, there were many blond presenters, as well as actors in local productions. ], A little bit closer to our time (about 265 BCE), the Greek poet Apollonios also reports this blond people in his story of Jason and the Argonauts. We do not have sufficient evidence to determine how far back into pre-history the differentiations occurred.
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