what is hydrogen used for

About 40 of these stations are available for public use, nearly all of which are in California. The largest is the Red Lion Energy Center in Delaware with 27 MW capacity, which uses hydrogen produced from landfill gas to operate the fuel cells. A fuel cell is two to three times more efficient than an internal combustion engine running on gasoline. Hence hydrogen is often used as a theoretical model for more complex atoms, and the results are applied qualitatively to other atoms. Regional energy information including dashboards, maps, data, and analyses. The earliest known important chemical property of hydrogen is that it burns with oxygen to form water, H 2 O; indeed, the name hydrogen is derived from Greek words meaning “maker of water.” The earliest known important chemical property of hydrogen is that it burns with oxygen to form water, H2O; indeed, the name hydrogen is derived from Greek words meaning “maker of water.”. The two forms may, however, interconvert under certain conditions. Source: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) (public domain), Source: Adapted from the National Energy Education Project (public domain). It occurs, however, in vast quantities as part of the water in oceans, ice packs, rivers, lakes, and the atmosphere. The extremely low melting and boiling points result from weak forces of attraction between the molecules. In fact, at −68.6° C attractive forces predominate, and hydrogen, therefore, cools upon being allowed to expand below that temperature. The concentration of para-hydrogen in a mixture that has achieved equilibrium between the two forms depends on the temperature as shown by the following figures: Essentially pure para-hydrogen can be produced by bringing the mixture into contact with charcoal at the temperature of liquid hydrogen; this converts all the ortho-hydrogen into para-hydrogen. In para-hydrogen, the spins are aligned in opposite directions and are therefore antiparallel. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) began using liquid hydrogen in the 1950s as a rocket fuel, and NASA was one of the first to use hydrogen fuel cells to power the electrical systems on spacecraft.
Comprehensive data summaries, comparisons, analysis, and projections integrated across all energy sources. Electrical generators use the gas as a rotor coolant. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions at the State Level, 2005-2016, Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions at the State Level, through 2017, Monthly Solar Photovoltaic Module Shipments Report, Monthly Crude Oil and Natural Gas Production ›, Midwest and Rocky Mountain Transportation Fuels Markets, East Coast and Gulf Coast Transportation Fuels Markets.

Updates? In the United States, several vehicle manufacturers have begun making light-duty hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles available in select regions such as Southern and Northern California where there is access to hydrogen fueling stations. Consequently, kinetic energy is distributed faster through hydrogen than through any other gas; it has, for example, the greatest heat conductivity. It consists of two protons and two electrons held together by electrostatic forces. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? Paracelsus, physician and alchemist, in the 16th century unknowingly experimented with hydrogen when he found that a flammable gas was evolved when a metal was dissolved in acid. Where do hydrocarbon gas liquids come from? Energy use in homes, commercial buildings, manufacturing, and transportation. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Normally, transformations of one type into the other (i.e., conversions between ortho and para molecules) do not occur and ortho-hydrogen and para-hydrogen can be regarded as two distinct modifications of hydrogen. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). The interest in hydrogen as a transportation fuel is based on its potential for domestic production and use in fuel cells for high efficiency, zero-emission electric vehicles. https://www.britannica.com/science/hydrogen, hydrogen - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), hydrogen - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up), nuclear magnetic moment (nuclear magnetons). U.S.
Nearly all of the hydrogen consumed in the United States is used by industry for refining petroleum, treating metals, producing fertilizer, and processing foods. Lesson plans, science fair experiments, field trips, teacher guide, and career corner. Emeritus Professor of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley. Because its molecular weight is lower than that of any other gas, its molecules have a velocity higher than those of any other gas at a given temperature and it diffuses faster than any other gas. Reserves, production, prices, employment and productivity, distribution, stocks, imports and exports. Under ordinary conditions, hydrogen gas is a loose aggregation of hydrogen molecules, each consisting of a pair of atoms, a diatomic molecule, H 2. Hydrogen has three known isotopes. It is primarily used to create water. U.S. petroleum refineries use hydrogen to lower the sulfur content of fuels. Exploration and reserves, storage, imports and exports, production, prices, sales. Sign up for email subcriptions to receive messages about specific EIA products. The melting point of para-hydrogen is 0.10° lower than that of a 3:1 mixture of ortho-hydrogen and para-hydrogen. U.S. Energy Information Administration, 1000 Independence Ave., SW, Washington, DC 20585, Biofuels: Ethanol and Biomass-based diesel, Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS), Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS). Come test out some of the products still in development and let us know what you think! Author of, 118 Names and Symbols of the Periodic Table Quiz. The State of California has a program to help fund the development of publicly accessible hydrogen refueling stations throughout California to promote a consumer market for zero-emission fuel cell vehicles. Maps by energy source and topic, includes forecast maps. In 1766 Henry Cavendish, English chemist and physicist, showed that hydrogen, then called flammable air, phlogiston, or the flammable principle, was distinct from other combustible gases because of its density and the amount of it that evolved from a given amount of acid and metal. The practice of giving distinct names to the hydrogen isotopes is justified by the fact that there are significant differences in their properties. Maps, tools, and resources related to energy disruptions and infrastructure. State energy information, including overviews, rankings, data, and analyses. The Table lists the important properties of molecular hydrogen, H2. Reports requested by congress or otherwise deemed important. The existence of these weak intermolecular forces is also revealed by the fact that, when hydrogen gas expands from high to low pressure at room temperature, its temperature rises, whereas the temperature of most other gases falls. Subscribe to feeds for updates on EIA products including Today in Energy and What's New. U.S. petroleum refineries use hydrogen to lower the sulfur content of fuels. Under ordinary conditions, hydrogen gas is a loose aggregation of hydrogen molecules, each consisting of a pair of atoms, a diatomic molecule, H2. Production of hydrogen-fueled cars is limited because people won't buy those cars if hydrogen refueling stations are not easily accessible, and companies won't build refueling stations if they don't have customers with hydrogen-fueled vehicles. In 1929 Karl Friedrich Bonhoeffer, a German physical chemist, and Paul Harteck, an Austrian chemist, on the basis of earlier theoretical work, showed that ordinary hydrogen is a mixture of two kinds of molecules, ortho-hydrogen and para-hydrogen. Two types of molecular hydrogen (ortho and para) are known.

Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. EIA's free and open data available as API, Excel add-in, bulk files, and widgets. Many different types of fuel cells are available for a wide range of applications. Hydrogen (H), a colourless, odourless, tasteless, flammable gaseous substance that is the simplest member of the family of chemical elements.

As part of innumerable carbon compounds, hydrogen is present in all animal and vegetable tissue and in petroleum. Hydrogen is the most abundant chemical substance in the universe, constituting roughly 75% of all baryonic mass. The mass 2 isotope, which has a nucleus of one proton and one neutron and has been named deuterium, or heavy hydrogen (symbol D, or 2H), constitutes 0.0156 percent of the ordinary mixture of hydrogen. Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Energy & Financial Markets: What Drives Crude Oil Prices?

The mass numbers of hydrogen’s isotopes are 1, 2, and 3, the most abundant being the mass 1 isotope generally called hydrogen (symbol H, or 1H) but also known as protium. Greenhouse gas data, voluntary reporting, electric power plant emissions. These differ in the magnetic interactions of the protons due to the spinning motions of the protons. Short, timely articles with graphics on energy, facts, issues, and trends. Forms EIA uses to collect energy data including descriptions, links to survey instructions, and additional information. According to thermodynamic principles, this implies that repulsive forces exceed attractive forces between hydrogen molecules at room temperature—otherwise, the expansion would cool the hydrogen. Hydrogen gas can be used for metallic ore reduction. Nearly all of the hydrogen consumed in the United States is used by industry for refining petroleum, treating metals, producing fertilizer, and processing foods. The same hydrogen gas is required for atomic hydrogen welding (AHW). The ortho-hydrogen, on the other hand, cannot be prepared directly from the mixture because the concentration of para-hydrogen is never less than 25 percent. The hydrogen reacts with oxygen across an electrochemical cell similar to that of a battery to produce electricity, water, and small amounts of heat. Includes hydropower, solar, wind, geothermal, biomass and ethanol. Uranium fuel, nuclear reactors, generation, spent fuel. Because of the simple structure of hydrogen, its properties can be theoretically calculated relatively easily. Fuel Cells: A Better Energy Source for Earth and Space, National Fuel Cell Technology Evaluation Center, Hydrogen for refineries is increasingly provided by industrial suppliers, Power-to-gas brings a new focus to the issue of energy storage from renewable sources. Although hydrogen is the most abundant element in the universe (three times as abundant as helium, the next most widely occurring element), it makes up only about 0.14 percent of Earth’s crust by weight. Hydrogen is transparent to visible light, to infrared light, and to ultraviolet light to wavelengths below 1800 Å. Chemical industries also use it for hydrochloric acid production. Test vehicles are also available in limited numbers to select organizations with access to hydrogen fueling stations.

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