From safe drinking water to electricity, from basic health care to police services, from affordable public transport to fire/ambulance services, from sanitation sewer to paved roads, new slums usually lack all of these. The cause of the fire is disputed, but some believed that the police prevented the residents from having access to firefighting efforts and actually helped spread the fire. Affordable public transport and economic infrastructure empowers poor people to move and consider housing options other than their current slums. These cookies do not store any personal information.  Some governments, moreover, mapped the land where slums occupied as undeveloped land. French government passed laws to block increase in the rent of housing, which inadvertently made many housing projects unprofitable and increased slums.  Besides children's vulnerability to diseases, many scholars also focus on high HIV/AIDS prevalence in slums among women. (2009), Disaster risk reduction: Cases from urban Africa, Earthscan Publishers (UK); Larry Whiteaker (1997), Seduction, Prostitution, and Moral Reform in New York, 1830–1860, S Cohen (1971), Images of deviance, Harmondsworth, UK, Penguin. The slum residents have been convinced that their current location is a health hazard, prone to natural disaster, or that the alternative location is well connected to employment opportunities. In 1990, 46 percent of the urban population lived in slums; by 2000, the percentage had dropped to 39%; which further dropped to 32% by 2010. Encyclopedia of the City (2005), Editor: Roger W. Caves, Nancy Krieger, Historical roots of social epidemiology, Int. Volume 101, Issue 1, pages 4–17, February 2010. Criminological Theory: Context and Consequences, J. Robert Lilly, Francis T. Cullen, Richard A. Gilbert, Daniel (1990), Barriada Haute-Espérance : Récit d'une coopération au Pérou. , According to Ali and Toran, social networks might also explain rural–urban migration and people's ultimate settlement in slums. (Eds.). Evidence from population-based HIV prevalence surveys in Kenya", "The built environment & the impact of neighborhood characteristics on youth sexual risk behavior in Cape Town, South Africa", MEASLES OUTBREAK – A STUDY IN MIGRANT POPULATION IN ALIGARH, "Vivax malaria and bacteraemia: A prospective study in Kolkata, India", "Modelling typhoid risk in Dhaka Metropolitan Area of Bangladesh: The role of socio-economic and environmental factors", "Socio-demographic determinants and prevalence of Tuberculosis knowledge in three slum populations of Uganda", "Leptospirosis in the Asia Pacific region", "Risk Factors for Death in Children with Visceral Leishmaniasis", "The burden of cholera in the slums of Kolkata, India: Data from a prospective, community based study", "The High Burden of Cholera in Children: Comparison of Incidence from Endemic Areas in Asia and Africa", "The burden of disease profile of residents of Nairobi's slums: Results from a Demographic Surveillance System", "The burden of cholera in the slums of Kolkata, India: data from a prospective, community based study", In a Liberian slum swarming with Ebola, a race against time to save two little girls, Liberian Slum Takes Ebola Treatment Into Its Own Hands, "Urbanisation and infectious diseases in a globalised world", "Malnutrition kills 56,000 children annually in urban slums", "Health awareness and behavior among adolescent students in a rural school: A cross sectional observational study", "Differences in the Prevalence of Non-Communicable Disease between Slum Dwellers and the General Population in a Large Urban Area in Brazil", "Performance of a community-based health and nutrition-education intervention in the management of diarrhoea in a slum of Delhi, India", "Slum health: Diseases of neglected populations", "Adult Mortality in Slums of Karachi, Pakistan", "Health in slums: understanding the unseen", The Seven Myths of Slums: Challenging popular prejudices about the world’s urban poor, Slum dwellers refuse to vacate railway land, Homeless labourers protest razing of slums, World Bank Experience with the Provision of Infrastructure Services for the Urban Poor, Modernism and Urban Renewal in Denmark 1939–1983, Urban Land Tenure Policies in Brazil, South Africa, and India: an Assessment of the Issues, Policy and Planning as Public Choice Mass Transit in the United States, Public transport in Victorian London: Part Two: Underground, Historic American Engineering Record: Clifton Hood, IRT and New York City, Subway, Before Public Housing, a City Life Cleared Away, The impact of post-war slum clearance in the UK, "The face of urban poverty: Explaining the prevalence of slums in developing countries", Story of the Slum, Chicago West Side 1890-1930, A Big Devil in the Jondolos: A report on shack fires by Matt Birkinshaw, Every third person will be a slum dweller within 30 years, UN agency warns, Mute Magazine Vol 2#3, Naked Cities – Struggle in the Global Slums, 2006, "The Economics of Slums in the Developing World", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Slum&oldid=983923322, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from October 2018, Articles with dead external links from July 2018, Articles with permanently dead external links, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles which use infobox templates with no data rows, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from August 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2018, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. , It is thought that slum is a British slang word from the East End of London meaning "room", which evolved to "back slum" around 1845 meaning 'back alley, street of poor people. There, you will find people living and sleeping in floating wooden canoes. The Eternal Slum: Housing and Social Policy in Victorian (Vol.